60 seconds

60 seconds on… Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

In today’s post we are exploring a mental health condition called obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD for short). This condition appears to have become more known in recent years, with a number of celebrities (such as Leonardo Dicaprio and Justin Timberlake) talking openly about their own experiences of living with the condition. Also, there has been recent news suggesting the number of people in the UK seeking help for OCD has risen sharply since the outbreak of coronavirus, with 72% of those with OCD feeling like their symptoms have worsened (full article can be found here).

Obsessive compulsive disorder is a type of anxiety disorder, involving a vicious cycle of obsessive thoughts, anxiety, compulsive behaviours and temporary relief.

Obsessions are reoccurring thoughts or images. These are often distressing for the individual and make them feel uncomfortable or like they can’t control them. An example of this could be obsessive thoughts that a fire is going to start in the kitchen. These obsessive thoughts can cause levels of anxiety to rise in the individual, alongside feelings of intense fear or doubt. 

Other obsessive thoughts can include:

  • A fear of contamination from body fluids, germs, dirt or pollution in the environment.
  • A fear of losing control of themselves, which could lead them to carrying out behaviours such as harming themselves or others. 
  • A fear about lack of perfectionism. They may feel that things need to be an exact way.
  • A fear of forgetting or losing important things or information.

Compulsions are repetitive behaviours that individuals carry out in order to rid themselves of their obsessions and lower their anxieties. These compulsions often only offer a temporary relief from an individual’s obsessions, meaning they return and the cycle starts again. Relating to the example above, an individual may flick plug switches in the kitchen on and off multiple times in a specific way to try and reduce their fears of a fire starting.

Other compulsions can include:

  • Excessive washing of the body and hands.
  • Excessive cleaning of the environment around them (e.g. household objects)
  • Repetitive checking that their actions haven’t had a negative effect on or harmed anyone.
  • Checking that they haven’t harmed themselves – including checking the physical condition of their body.
  • Avoidance of situations which may trigger obsessive thoughts.

Individuals with OCD experience constant feelings of fear that something bad is going to happen. Although these fears can appear irrational to others, they can be intense or overpowering for people with OCD. Their thoughts replay over and over again in their minds and they can become stuck on these distressing thoughts. They may feel like they aren’t in control of their own mind, they feel like their thoughts are taking over them and putting constant pressure on them. The cycle of thoughts and behaviours that OCD creates can have a negative effect on an individual in a number of ways:

  • An individual may sustain damage to their physical health as a result of their compulsions – for example they may make the skin on their hands bleed from scrubbing too much. 
  • Some individuals may turn to self-medication in order to feel that they can cope with the condition. This can lead to them abusing substances such as alcohol and drugs which can cause further damage to their physical health.
  • Individuals may not feel in control of their own lives and may feel enslaved by their condition. Having OCD can make an individual feel ashamed of themselves and how they behave. They may worry that they are going to think like this forever and they can’t be treated. 
  • They may get anxious about being around others due to their condition which can cause them to become withdrawn from the world around them. This can lead to them feeling isolated and lonely.

OCD can also have an effect on an individuals daily life:

  • It get in the way of them carrying out tasks which could have an impact on their education, where they find themselves able to complete tasks in the set time due to their compulsive behaviours. 
  • Compulsive behaviours may also make it difficult to obtain, sustain and progress in a job. Individuals with OCD may avoid certain situations which can make it difficult to carry out their job properly.
  • An individual’s relationships with others can become strained. If they are with a partner who doesn’t understand the condition, this could cause disputes as they don’t understand the reasons for the individuals behaviours. 
  • Their friends and family may stay away from them when they find out about their condition due to the stigma around mental illness. This can reduce their quality of life due to lack of social interactions.
  • An individual’s obsessions and compulsions can make it difficult for them to look after others such as their children. This could lead to accidents occurring which could have a damaging effect on the parent-child relationship.

I hope that the information above is insightful. I certainly found out a lot more about the condition and just how much of an effect it can have on an individuals life.

60 seconds

60 seconds on… Eating Disorders

In the UK at the moment the government is considering new legislation in a bid to reduce current levels of obesity in the country. One of these measures include food outlets stating the calories of each of their products on the menu. There’s been a lot of debate about this idea, with some suggesting that there’s more to tackling obesity than placing numbers on foods. Encouraging this method of calorie counting can also be very dangerous for individuals who suffer from an eating disorder. I thought for this weeks ‘60 seconds on’ I could provide an introduction to eating disorders and the effect that the condition can have on an individual’s life.

An eating disorder causes an individual’s life to revolve around food. They can become so obsessed with food that they are unable to live their normal lives from day-to-day. Eating disorders can result in an individual conducting unhealthy eating behaviours, leading to damaging results on their physical and mental health.

There are three types of eating disorders: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder.

  • Anorexia can cause an individual to become obsessed with controlling their own weight. This can cause these individuals to compulsively weigh themselves and obsess over their food portions, ensuring that they don’t eat too much. Individuals may carry out excessive dieting and exercising regimes or may purge themselves in order to lose weight.
  • Bulimia can cause an individual to fear gaining weight and carry out behaviours in a bid to lose weight, which include binge-eating and then purging. Often these behaviours are carried out in secret and individuals may appear to be a healthy weight.
  • Binge-eating disorder can cause an individual to lose control of their eating behaviours, leading to periods of binge-eating. But unlike those with anorexia and bulimia, individuals do not purge, fast or exercise in a bid to lose weight. This can leads to individuals becoming overweight or obese.

Having an eating disorder can have both physical and psychological effects on an individual which can have an impact on their daily life:

Physical effects include:

  • Thinning of bones
  • Weakening of body muscles
  • Dry skin 
  • Brittle hair and nails. 
  • In severe cases, eating disorders can lead to brain damage, infertility and multiple organ failure. 
  • Damage to an individual’s heart function, resulting in low blood pressure, a reduced pulse and a drop in body temperature. 
  • Feeling lethargic and tired all of the time, which can make an individuals daily life difficult. For example, they may not be able to leave the house and see their friends because they feel so weak, which could lead to a breakdown in their relationships.

Psychological effects can include:

  • A lack of self-worth and confidence in abilities. Individuals may experience low self-esteem and feel worthless some days, which could lead to them contemplating hurting themselves. A lack of self-esteem can cause individuals not to feel motivated at work or school, which can have a devastating impact on their future. 
  • Finding it difficult to separate their emotions from their eating behaviours, for example someone with anorexia may fast in order to regain a feeling of control after a bad break-up.
  • Feelings of guilt and shame surrounding their eating behaviours. This can cause them to hide things from others and become socially withdrawn. Because of this, they may have difficulty in forming and maintaining relationships with  family and friends. Others may try to help the individual and ask them about their behaviours which may develop into conflict.

I hope today’s post has been insightful, especially in light of the proposed government plans. I personally can see the damage that placing numbers on foods can have for those struggling with an eating disorder and would urge the government to consider other options.

60 seconds

60 seconds on… Schizophrenia

This weeks 60 seconds is on Schizophrenia. In the survey I conducted, this was one of the mental disorders participants felt that they knew the least about. In my opinion it’s also an illness that is stigmatised a great deal due to the way it is portrayed in the media. There is constant misinformation portrayed about the condition which can cause fear in those who view it. Schizophrenia is often portrayed as someone having a split ‘Jekyll and Hyde’ personality, when research has shown this not to be true.

Schizophrenia is a long-term mental illness that can severely impair the way an individual thinks. An individual with schizophrenia can experience a number of different psychological symptoms, creating both ‘positive’ and ‘negative’ feelings.

They include:

  • Hallucinations – they may experience things that aren’t really there or aren’t real.
  • Delusions – they start to think irrationally and believe in thoughts that are unlikely to be true (for example they may believe they are being spied on).
  • Disordered thoughts – this can include talking quicker or slower than usual about things that don’t make logical sense to those around them.
  • Possessed thoughts – individuals may believe that they are not in control of their own thoughts and that someone else is putting them there. Others can believe that their thoughts are being extracted from their mind by a third party.
  • Thought blocking – where their mind goes blank in the middle of their train of thought.
  • Thought echoes – where they hear their thoughts being spoken out loud, which can lead to them engaging in a conversation with them.
  • Thought broadcasting – this is where an individual believes that their thoughts are being said out loud for everyone to hear.

Negative feelings refer to the loss of an individual’s enjoyment in life or ability.

They include:

  • A loss of motivation.
  • Struggling with concentration, making it difficult to learn new information.
  • Difficulty planning and sticking to goals.
  • A reduced range of emotions and facial expressions.
  • Engaging in obsessive-compulsive behaviours.
  • Emotions may be inappropriate, for example laughing at something that is sad.

Having schizophrenia can massively affect an individuals life in a number of ways:

  • It may lead to relationship problems. They may find it difficult to trust others and In some cases they may believe that the people close to them are out to get them.
  • Individuals can become withdrawn from life and stop taking part in the social activities that they used to enjoy. They can lose an interest in life and may find it difficult to get out of bed in the morning for example.
  • Some may use drugs and alcohol as a way to alleviate their symptoms. But in some cases, their drug use can mess with any medicine they are currently taking and could actually make their symptoms worse.
  • They may find it impossible to carry out normal activities such as food shopping or eating, especially if they are experiencing hallucinations or delusions at the time.
  • Difficulty concentrating can lead to an individual finding it difficult to plan their daily life.
  • They may feel that their thoughts are not their own and they may contemplate committing suicide. They need a support network who are able to seek help when this happens as those with schizophrenia are more likely to attempt to take their own life.

I hope that this post has been useful and informative. I found out an interesting fact the other day which I feel is really relevant to this post. A lot of individuals are fearful of those with schizophrenia; they believe that the individual is likely to be violent towards them or cause them harm. In actual fact, individuals with schizophrenia are much more likely to cause harm to themselves before anyone else. Also, research suggests that you are more likely to be attacked by a drug addict than someone with schizophrenia. Food for thought…

60 seconds

60 seconds on… Bipolar Disorder

In response to my previous post, I thought I would start a mini-series of blog posts called the ‘60 seconds on’ series. These will be posts on a range of mental illnesses outlining definitions, symptoms and effects each disorder can have on an individual and their lives. The aim of these posts is to be short but sweet, allowing individuals to gain awareness on mental disorders when and wherever they have a spare couple of minutes free. A lot of information on mental illness is usually presented through the media, which can be hugely biased and exaggerated to create emotional reactions from the viewer or reader. But sadly this can also lead to stigma against those suffering from these disorders. I’ll include a range of resources and websites at the end of this post, should anyone want to learn more about the disorder presented.

Today’s post is about bipolar disorder. Bipolar disorder is a mental illness in which an individual’s emotions become magnified, often unpredictably. Bipolar disorder can cause an individual to experience severe mood swings, experiencing either high or low moods. 

  • feel overly happy and energised. They may find it difficult to stay still or go to sleep.
  • feel like they can do anything in the world and may start to make lots of ambitious plans.
  • become irritable and impulsive, which can lead to them making reckless decisions, such as going on shopping sprees and buying things they can’t really afford.
  • have an exaggerated positive outlook on life, a heightened sense of self-importance and may spend an excessive amount of time doing the things that they find pleasurable.
  • Have a lack of focus, moving quickly between ideas.
  • experience a deep depression, where they feel sluggish, hopeless and very sad. 
  • feel worthless and like nothing is ever going to get better for them, feelings which can lead to thoughts of suicide.
  • display aggressive or irritable behaviours and have feelings of guilt afterwards.
  • lose interest in the things that used to bring them joy. 
  • become withdrawn from life.
  • feel unable to eat or sleep.

During both high and low moods, an individual with bipolar disorder may experience hallucinations (seeing or hearing things that aren’t there) or delusions (believing things that are highly unlikely to be true).

However there is a period of stability for the individual, between these high and low moods. The number of mood swings an individual experiences can vary, some may only experience a couple over their lifetime whereas for others they may be a lot more frequent. 

Bipolar disorder can have an impact on an individual’s life in a number of ways: 

  • hallucinations and delusions may make it difficult for the individual to distinguish real life from their imagination.
  • some may feel that they are not in control of their own emotions. 
  • During depressive episodes:
    • an individuals self-worth can dip, which could lead to them carrying out self-harm or contemplating suicide. 
    • individuals may feel lethargic and lack the motivation to carry out daily tasks, which could lead to issues in their career. 
    • individuals may become withdrawn and avoid seeing people which can have an effect on their support network.
    • individuals may struggle with their sleeping and eating behaviours which could have an effect on their physical health.
  • During manic episodes:
    •  an individual can act erratically and sometimes irresponsibly which could lead to financial worries due to extravagant spending. 
    • They can find it difficult to communicate with those around them because they can’t focus and their thoughts are quickly changing all the time. 
    • An individual can become impulsive and this can result in them carry out risky behaviours with regards to drugs, alcohol and sex. 
    • An individual may act aggressively, sometimes towards others which can put a strain on their relationships.

I hope that this post has been informative and useful!

Extra information about bipolar disorder can be found by clicking on the links below:

Rethink Mental illness

NHS

Youngminds

Mind